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Breast Cancer


Over the past 20 years, progress in treatment and early detection has led to improved survival for people of all ages and races, and with all stages of breast cancer. Between 1990 and 2010, breast cancer mortality (death) declined by 34 percent among women in the U.S. And today, there are more than three million breast cancer survivors in the U.S. (more than any other group of cancer survivors)!

Breast cancer treatment

The goal of treating early breast cancer is to get rid of the cancer and keep it from coming back. Treatment for early breast cancer includes some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy. These treatments are designed to remove the cancer from the breast and destroy any cancer that might still be in the body.  

Learn about treating metastatic (advanced, stage IV) breast cancer.  


Your breast cancer treatment plan


Your breast cancer treatment plan is based on both medical and personal choices. It is tailored to:

  • Your specific breast cancer (the biology of the tumor)

  • The stage of the breast cancer

  • Other medical issuesYour personal preferences

Because of the differences between tumors and between people, your treatment plan may differ from another person’s, even though you both have breast cancer. Each treatment option has risks and benefits to consider along with your own values and lifestyle.  

Treatment for breast cancer can be thought of in two areas: local therapy and systemic therapy.

Local therapy

Local therapy removes the cancer from a limited (local) area, such as the breast, chest wall and lymph nodes in the underarm area (axillary nodes). It also helps to ensure the cancer does not come back (recur) to that area. It involves surgery, with or without radiation therapy to the breast area.

Systemic therapy (adjuvant therapy)

Systemic therapy aims to get rid of cancer cells that may have spread from the breast to other parts of the body. It uses drug therapies (either in IV or pill form) that travel throughout the body to get rid of cancer cells.  

Systemic therapy includes chemotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy. Because systemic therapy is in addition to (an adjunct to) breast surgery, these treatments are often called adjuvant therapy.  

Learn about factors that affect treatment options.

Learn about financial issues related to treatment.  

How does your age affect your treatment plan?

No matter your age, your treatment plan depends on many factors, such as the stage of the breast cancer and the characteristics of the tumor. Your overall health and other health conditions you may have also play a role. For example, if you have heart disease, some medications used to treat breast cancer can do more harm than good. All of these things are considered when developing a treatment plan that is right for you.  

Young women with breast cancer may have special concerns about early menopause and loss of fertility due to treatment. Learn about these issues for young women with breast cancer.

Your health care team

Throughout your treatment and beyond, you will receive care from many health care providers. Your health care team may include:

  • Physicians (oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists and pathologists)

  • Nurses

  • Dietitians

  • Social workers

  • Physical therapists

  •  Palliative care or pain specialists

  • Patient navigators

  • Pharmacists


These professionals may be involved in your care during diagnosis, treatment and recovery.    

Learn about choosing a physician.


You may find it helpful to create a notebook or other organizer to keep track of your breast cancer treatments and your health care team. A three-ring binder often works well. The notebook should include:

  • A directory of the names, addresses and contact information for your health care team

  • Insurance information

  • Medication lists

  • Pharmacy contact information

  • Other medical information

  • Calendar to help plan and keep track of appointments

  • Blank paper to write down questions (and answers), or to record any side effects you are having or other information for your health care team


The importance of following your breast cancer treatment plan  

Completing your breast cancer treatment plan (called adherence or compliance) is very important. People who complete the full course of treatment have a higher chance of survival. Sometimes completing your treatment plan may be hard, but there are things you can do to make it easier.  

First, talk to your health care provider. If you are suffering from side effects, tell your provider right away. He/she may be able to help. Having fewer side effects can help you complete your treatment plan.  

Sticking to your treatment plan can be especially hard for long-term treatments, such as hormone therapy. Planning ahead can help you juggle your treatment and daily life. For example, if you have trouble remembering to take your pills, a daily pillbox or setting an alarm on your watch or mobile device (you may be able to download a mobile app) may help  

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